Clinical Articles

"Expert Consensus Guidelines for Stocking of Antidotes in Hospitals That Provide Emergency Care"

Stocking Guidelines

Review the stocking guidelines established by an international expert panel.

"The Efficacy of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) Antivenom Versus Placebo Plus Optional Rescue Therapy on Recovery From Copperhead Snake Envenomation: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial"

Annals of Emergency Medicine

Clinical trial demonstrating how treatment with FabAV can reduce limb disability.

"Early administration of Fab antivenom resulted in faster limb recovery in copperhead snake envenomation patients"

Clinical Toxicology

Secondary analysis of a clinical trial demonstrating that patients treated with FabAV earlier had a significantly shorter time to full recovery than those treated late (median time: 17 versus 28 days, p=025).

"Antivenom Treatment Is Associated with Fewer Patients using Opioids after Copperhead Envenomation"

Western Journal of Emergency Medicine

Secondary analysis of a clinical trial demonstrating that the proportion of patients using opioids for pain related to envenomation was smaller in the FabAV treatment group at all follow-up time points, and that the odds ratio of using opioids after hospital discharge among those who received placebo was 5.67 times that of those who received FabAV.

"Unified Treatment Algorithm for the Management of Crotaline Snakebite in the United States: Results of an Evidence-Informed Consensus Workshop"

BMC Emergency Medicine

Nine experts produce and align on a unified algorithm for treatment of crotaline envenomation.

"Acute adverse events associated with the administration of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom within the North American Snake Bite Registry"

Clinical Toxicology

A retrospective study of 373 patients finds 2.7% incidence of adverse reactions overall, and a 1% incidence of severe adverse reactions.

"Incidence of Allergic Reactions to Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab"

Clinical Toxicology

Retrospective study of 1340 CroFab® patients finds low incidence (1.4%) of acute hypersensitivity reactions.

"Incidence of Immediate Hypersensitivity Reaction and Serum Sickness Following Administration of Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab Antivenom: A Meta-analysis"

Academic Emergency Medicine

Systematic literature review and meta-analysis of immediate hypersensitivity reactions and serum sickness from FabAV.

"Medically Significant Late Bleeding After Treated Crotaline Envenomation: A Systematic Review"

Annals of Emergency Medicine

Study to estimate the proportion of patients with crotaline snake envenomation, treated with Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom, who develop medically significant late bleeding.

"Affinity-Purified, Mixed Monospecific Crotalid Antivenom Ovine Fab for the Treatment of Crotalid Venom Poisoning"

Annals of Emergency Medicine

First premarketing clinical study of CroFab®, Tab001, to test the efficacy and safety of a new antivenom, affinity-purified, mixed monospecific crotalid antivenom ovine Fab, in human subjects with minimal or moderate crotalid envenomation.

"A Randomized Multicenter Trial of Crotalinae Polyvalent Immune Fab (ovine) Antivenom for the Treatment for Crotaline Snakebite in the United States"

Archives of Internal Medicine

The second clinical trial of CroFab®, Tab002, and the first randomized clinical trial of antivenom in the US showing efficacy and safety of CroFab® in crotaline envenomation.

"Surgical Considerations in the Management of Pit Viper Snake Envenomation"

Journal of American College of Surgeons

A 4-member panel of experts provides recommendations based on systematic review of key clinical questions regarding the surgical management of pit viper envenomation.

"Bedside Management Considerations in the Treatment of Pit Viper Envenomation"

Journal of Emergency Nursing

Review article highlighting the possible effects of snakebites as well as their assessment and treatment.

Did You Know?

Treating snakebites and pit viper envenomation is about more than just knowing how to administer treatment. Make sure you’re aware of the risk, and know what to do at every step of snakebite management.