*Efficacy determined using the snakebite severity score (SSS), a validated objective tool for the clinical evaluation of North American pit viper snakebite in adults. The total score reflects patient evaluation on 6 dimensions: cardiovascular system, local wound, gastrointestinal system, hematologic symptoms, pulmonary system, and central nervous system. The higher the total score, the more severe the snakebite.1
1. CroFab® [prescribing Information]. BTG International Inc; January 2018. 2. WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization. Guidelines for the production, control and regulation of snake antivenom immunoglobulins. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. WHO Technical Report Series, No. 1004, Annex 5. 2017. 3. Laustsen AH, María Gutiérrez J, Knudsen C, et al. Pros and cons of different therapeutic antibody formats for recombinant antivenom development. Toxicon. 2018;146:151-175. 4. Gerardo CJ, Quackenbush E, Lewis B, et al. The efficacy of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom versus placebo plus optional rescue therapy on recovery from copperhead snake envenomation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2017;70(2):233-244. 5. Data on file. Conshohocken, PA; BTG International Inc. 2019. 6. Lavonas EJ, Ruha AM, Banner W, et al. Unified treatment algorithm for the management of crotaline snakebite in the United States: results of an evidence-informed consensus workshop. BMC Emerg Med. 2011;11:2. 7. Nelson L, Lewin N, Howland M, et al. Goldfrank’s Toxicologic Emergencies. 9th ed. McGraw Hill Medical; 2010:1601-1609. 8. Ruha AM, Kleinschmidt KC, Greene S, et al. The epidemiology, clinical course, and management of snakebites in the North American Snakebite Registry. J Med Toxicol. 2017;13(4):309-320. 9. Mackessy SP, ed. Handbook of Venoms and Toxins of Reptiles. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2010. 10. Dart RC, Seifert SA, Boyer LV, et al. A randomized multicenter trial of crotalinae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom for the treatment for crotaline snakebite in the United States. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(16):2030-2036. 11. Dart RC, Goldfrank LR, Erstad BL, et al. Expert consensus guidelines for stocking of antidotes in hospitals that provide emergency care. Ann Emerg Med. 2018;71(3):314-325.